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Eigenvectors and communities

I liked a lot the talk by Luca Trevisan in STOC’09 about the “Max Cut and the Smallest Eigenvalue”. In this paper he proposes an {.531}-approximation algorithm for MAX-CUT, which is the first approximation algorithm for MAX-CUT that doesn’t use semi-definite programming (SDP). The best possible approximation for that problem is the 0.878-approximation given by Goemans and Williamson, based on SDP (which is the best possible approximation assuming the Unique Games Conjecture).

I won’t discuss the paper in much detail here, but its heart is the very beautiful idea of analyzing properties of a graph looking at the spectrum of the matrix that defines it. For example, represent a graph {G} by its adjacent matrix {A}, i.e., {A} is an {n \times n} matrix (where {n} is the number of nodes of {G}) and {A_{ij} = 1} iff the edge {(i,j)} is in {G}. Let also {D} be the diagonal matrix for which {D_{ii}} is the degree of node {i}. The normalized adjacency matrix is given by {D^{-1/2} A D^{-1/2}}. Let {\lambda_1 \geq \lambda_2 \geq \hdots \geq \lambda_n} be its eigenvalues. It is easy to see that all the eigenvalues are in {[-1,1]}, since:

\displaystyle 0 \leq \sum_{ij} A_{ij} (x_i - x_j)^2 = 2 x^t D x - 2 x^t A x \Rightarrow \frac{x^t A x}{x^t D x} \leq 1

taking {y = D^{1/2}x} we have that: {\frac{y^t D^{-1/2} A D^{-1/2} y}{y^t y} \leq 1} for all {y \in {\mathbb R}^n}. It is not hard to see the the maximum eigenvalue is:

\displaystyle \lambda_1 = \max_{y \in {\mathbb R}^n} \frac{y^t D^{-1/2} A D^{-1/2} y}{y^t y}

To prove {\lambda_n \geq -1} it is analogous, just by analyzing {\sum_{ij} A_{ij} (x_i + y_i)^2 \geq 0}. The next natural questions is: do those bounds hold with equality?

In fact, {\lambda_1 = 1} for all graphs. It is very easy to see that, just take the vector {x \in {\mathbb R}^n} with {x_i = \sqrt{d_i}} where {d_i} is the degree of node {i}. And for {\lambda_n}, it is not difficult to see that {\lambda_n = -1} iff the graph has a bipartite connected component. It is also easy to see that if the graph has {k} connected components then {\lambda_1 = \hdots = \lambda_k = 1}.

So, given a connected graph {\lambda_2 < 1}. But what happens if {\lambda_2} is very close to {1}. Intuitively, it means that the graph is almost disconnected in the sense that it has a very sparse cut. For {d}-regular graphs (a graph where all nodes have degree {d}), this intuition is captured by Cheeger’s inequality.

\displaystyle \sqrt{2 (1-\lambda_2) } \geq h_G \geq \frac{1}{2} (1-\lambda_2)

where {h_G} is the sparsity of {G}, defined as {\min_{S \subseteq V} \frac{\vert e(S, V \setminus S) \vert}{d \min\{\vert S \vert, \vert V \setminus S \vert \}}}. In the paper, Luca Trevisan discusses an analogue os Cheeger’s Inequality for the smallest eigenvalues {\lambda_n}. Instead of measuring how close we are from a disconnected graph, we measure how close we are from a a bipartite graph.

Let’s try to get some intuition: if a {d}-regular graph has a good sparse cut, like in the picture below, we could divide it in two parts and try to get an eigenvalue close to {1} by the following way: set “almost” {1} in one part and almost {-1} in the other. Since there are very few edges crossing the cut, after being transformed by {\frac{1}{d}A} the values are almost still the same. Also if the graph is almost bipartite, we can set almost {1} in one part and almost {-1} in the other, and after applying {\frac{1}{d}A}, what was {1} becomes {-1} and vice versa.

eigenvalues

Ok, we can use eigenvalues to have a good idea if the graph has good expansion or not, but how to use that to actually find good partitions of it? Let {x_2} be the eigenvector corresponding to {\lambda_2}. The intuition in the last paragraph tells us that maybe we should think of getting {S_1 = \{v \in V; x_2(v) < 0\}} and {S_1 = \{v \in V; x_2(v) \geq 0\}}. More generally we can substitute {0} by a threshold {t}. This gives us only {n} possible partitions to test and choose the best, instead of {2^n}.

Finding Communities in Graphs

Real world graphs like social networks have clusters of nodes that can be identified as communities. There is a lot of work in finding those communities using all sorts of methods – more references about that can be found in Jon Kleinberg’s Networks course website. Spectral techniques are a natural candidate for doing that. I did a small experiment using Orkut, the most used social network in Brasil. Let {G} be the entire graph of Orkut and {u} be the node representing my profile on {G} and let: {\partial \{u\} = \{ v; (u,v) \in E(G)\}} be the set of all my friends and {G[\partial \{u\}]} be the graph induced on my friends.

First, I crawled the web to reconstruct {G[\partial \{u\}]} (notice I am not in the graph, so I am not using the fact that I am connecting all them. I am just using the connections between them). First, I have {211} friends, which form a huge {194} nodes component, and smaller components (one of size {5}, two of size {3} and six of size {1}). Let’s forget about the smaller components and care about the huge component: in this component there are my friends from undergrad, my friends from high-school, my family and some miscellaneous friends. Although all of them are interconnected, I wanted to be able to separate them just by using the topology of the graph.

I did the following experiment: I calculated the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of {D^{-1/2} A D^{-1/2}}. Let {1 = \lambda_1 \geq \hdots \lambda_n} be the eigenvalues and {x_1, \hdots, x_n} be the eigenvectors. For each node {v \in V}, I associated with coordinates {(x_2(v), x_n(v))} in a way that a vertical cut would be a good approximation of the sparsest cut and an horizontal line would be a good approximation of the max-cut. The result is there:

orkut

After doing that I labeled the nodes of the graph with colors: my friends from IME (my undergrad university), I labeled blue. My friends from high-school, I labeled green, my family nodes, I labeled yellow and friends from other places, I labeled red. Also, there were some people that used strange characters in their names I could no parse, so I also labeled them red. I was happy to see that the algorithm efficiently separated the green from the blue nodes: clearly distinguishing between my high-school and my undergrad friends.

More about spectral methods

Luca Trevisan has a lot of very cool blog posts about Cheeger’s inequality and other interesting proofs of spectral facts. This MIT course has a lot of material about Spectral Graph Theory.

  1. skip
    January 29th, 2015 at 08:59 | #1

    Thanks!
    Helps a lot.

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